This is a narration from his science reading.
For a sizable portion of the last century, scientists have largely ignored the makings of a serious complication in their model of the universe. This model of the universe has largely been formed by two major theories in physics.
Without a doubt, the two most important fields of the 20th Century have been the general theory of relativity and quantum mechanics. These fields have together come to describe much of the universe, allowing us to finally gain a glimmer of understanding of the strange forces that govern the world. The general theory of relativity, broadly speaking, describes time and space as a whole, explaining the motions of some of the largest objects we are aware of, from planets to stars to black holes. Relativity tells us that time and space are not fixed constants across the universe. Instead, they remain in flux depending on the way matter moves and other conditions. Quantum mechanics explains the opposite side of the universe, describing how particles inside of atoms move and behave. This field speaks of even stranger wonders than relativity, such as objects that appear out of nowhere and objects with variable characteristics until they are measured.
As far as we can tell, both fields are true. Elaborate, almost unbelievably accurate experimentation has confirmed both of them. Our knowledge of relativity keeps GPS working accurately, while many modern computers wouldn’t be possible without quantum mechanics. Both theories correctly describe the basic nature of the universe. The complication lies in the fact that they contradict each other.
It is not simply that they say mildly different things about the universe. They are too wildly different to be compatible. Any equation that attempts to factor both the general theory of relativity and quantum mechanics will fall apart into a string of nonsense. Both theories are true, but both hold the other to be false.
Could it be that the laws of nature are different between the colossal and the infinitesimal? If so, then what size is the dividing line? Scientists have managed to ignore these questions for decades, but it is quickly becoming apparent that they can do so no more. There are circumstances in which relativity and quantum mechanics interact with one another, and we currently have no knowledge of how this is possible. In the inside of a black hole, entire star systems are pressed into microscopic spaces. How are we to calculate what happens next—by using relativity, or quantum mechanics? What of our models of the Big Bang, when the entire universe exploded out of a subatomic space? If two indisputably true theories contradict one another, then how does one make sense of the universe?
The answer, according to some scientists, is to introduce a third theory. Superstring theory, often shortened to string theory, is an attempt by scientists worldwide to discover the basic rules of reality in order to gain a fresh vantage point with which to compare relativity and quantum mechanics. String theorists maintain that from a more knowledgeable perspective, we may find that relativity and quantum mechanics don’t contradict each other at all, and may even compliment one another. They search for the unified theory longed for by Albert Einstein, who formulated the general theory of relativity to that end only to be frustrated by quantum mechanics in his later years. The researchers of string theory seek the ability to define the universe in a simple statement.